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Tuesday, 2 August 2005
Khwarezmid Empire
Topic: Turkmen History
The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state formed by Oghuz Turks in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220.

The date of the founding of the empire is uncertain. Khwarezm was a province of the Ghaznavid Empire from 992 to 1041. In 1077 the governorship of the province, which now belonged to the Seljuk Turks, fell into the hands of Anu? Tigin ?ar?ai. In 1141, the Seljuk sultan Ahmed Sanjar was defeated by the Kara Khitay (Kara-Khitan Khanate) and Anu? Tigin's grandson Ala ad-Din Aziz was forced to submit as a vassal of the Kara Khitay.

Sultan Ahmed Sanjar was killed in 1156 and when the Seljuk state fell into chaos, the Khwarezms expanded their territories south. In 1194, the last sultan of Great Seljuk, To?r?l III, was defeated and killed by the Khwarezm ruler Ala ad-Din Tekish who also freed himself of the Kara Khitay. In 1200, Tekish died and was succeeded by his son, Ala ad-Din Muhammad, who by 1205 had conquered all of Great Seljuk and declared himself shah. In 1212 he defeated the Gur-Khan Kutluk and conquered the lands of the Kara Khitay, now ruling a territory from the Jaxartes almost all the way to Baghdad, and from the Indus River to the Caspian Sea.

In 1218 Chinggis Khan sent some emissaries to the shah who executed the Mongol diplomats in defiance of the emerging great power, and Genghis retaliated with a force of 200 000 men. In February 1220 the Mongolian army crossed the Jaxartes. The Mongols stormed Bukhara and Samarkand, the latter the Khwarezmian capital. The shah fled and died some weeks later on an island in the Caspian Sea.

In Great Captains Unveiled of 1927, B.H. Liddell Hart gave details of the Mongol campaign against Khwarezm which underscored his own philosophy of "the indirect approach," and highlighted many of the tactics used by Genghis which were to be subsequently included in the German blitzkrieg form of war, inspired in part by Liddell Hart's writings.

The son of Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, became the new sultan (he rejected the title shah) but he had to flee to India. The Mongols run up with him before he got there, however, and he was defeated at the Battle of Indus. He and his closest followers then fled to Armenia where they attacked the Seljuk Sultanate of R?m. He had a brief victory and captured the town Ahlat, but was later defeated by sultan Kay Qubadh I at the Battle of Yassi Chemen in 1230. He was murdered in 1231 by an assassin.

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu's followers remained loyal to him even after his death and raided the Seljuk lands of Jazira and Syria for the next several years, calling themselves the Khwarezmiyyas. Ayyubid sultan Salih Ayyub later hired them as mercenaries against his uncle Salih Ismail and they actually captured Jerusalem in 1244, triggering the Seventh Crusade.

The Khwarezmiyyas served in Egypt as Mameluks before they were finally beaten by Mansur Ibrahim some years later.

Ghaznavid Governors of Khwarezm
Abu Ali Mamun I 992-997
Abu al-Hasan Ali 997-1009
Abu al-Abbas Mamun II 1009-1017
Muhammad 1017
Altun Yash 1017-1032
Harun 1032-1034
Ismail Khandan 1034-1041

Khwarezmian Dynasty
Anu? Tigin ?ar?ai 1077-1097
Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I 1097-1127
Ala ad-Din Aziz 1127-1156
Il-Arslan 1156-1172
Sultan Shah 1172-1193
Ala ad-Din Tekish 1172-1200
Ala ad-Din Muhammad II 1200-1220
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu 1220-1231


Posted by countryturkmenistan at 4:35 PM
Updated: Tuesday, 2 August 2005 4:37 PM
Turkmenistan is Buying $ 19 mln Worth of Tractors in Belarus
Topic: Economy & business
Association for agricultural services “Turkmenobahyzmat” has signed a contract with Belarus “Minsk tractor plant” for the purchase of 500 units of “Belarus 1221” tractors and 500 units of “Belarus 80X” tractors totaling US $ 13,125 mln and US $ 5,540 mln respectively.

“Turkmenobahyzmat” also signed a contract with Belarus “Minsk tractor gear plant” for the purchase of 500 units of “PLN 4-35 P-2 T” ploughs amounting to US $ 755,000.

A consignment of Belarus tractors and ploughs will arrive in Turkmenistan by December 31, 2005. New equipment will be used during preparation of agricultural lands for sowing campaign 2006, the Ashgabat correspondent of reports.

Internet Newspaper Turkmenistan.Ru

Posted by countryturkmenistan at 3:46 PM
Monday, 1 August 2005
U.S. Held a Seminar for Turkmenistan Coastguards
Topic: Foreign Relations
30 July 2005. Yesterday a special seminar for the officers of the coastguard held by the US Embassy to Ashgabat and the State Frontier Service of Turkmenistan. The U.S. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Turkmenistan Tracey Ann Jacobson specially came to Turkmenbashi to congratulate the participants of the seminar and gave them certificates.

The joint training was held within the framework of the current exchange programme initiated by the American Embassy and aimed at prevention of spreading the weapons of mass destruction through trainings and handing down the special equipment to the national service of the coastguard and customs.

The agenda of the regular training in which about 23 representatives of the Coastguard Services of the USA and Turkmenistan took part included the methods of customs inspection of the ships detained and those of revealing the secret tanks and drugs.

State Information Agency of Turkmenistan (TDH)

Posted by countryturkmenistan at 10:33 AM
Friday, 29 July 2005
UK, Turkmenistan to Bolster Anti-Terror Cooperation
Topic: Foreign Relations
Ashgabat, 29 July 2005 (nCa) --- Ambassador Peter Butcher, the new British envoy to Turkmenistan, presented his credentials Thursday to President Saparmurat Niyazov.

The sides expressed confidence that mutually beneficial relations based on equality would continue to flourish during the tenure of Ambassador Butcher.

It was agreed that in order to maintain security and peace in the world, there was need for more efforts to combat terrorism and narcotics that are posing threat to the entire mankind.

Niyazov, who had earlier sent a message of condolence to Prime Minister Blair on the recent bombings in London, again expressed his sorrow and grief at the carnage.

Ambassador Butcher said that he would do his best to further develop the good relations between the two countries.

British envoy mentioned even though Burren Energy and Dragon Oil were traditional partners of Turkmenistan, there were many more British firms that were highly interested in entering the Turkmen market.

Ambassador Butcher presented a letter from Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain.

Posted by countryturkmenistan at 1:41 PM
Job Fair Floats 1100 New Vacancies in Turkmenistan
Topic: Economy & business
Turkmenistan Job Fair Showcases 1100 Job Opportunities

Ashgabat, 29 July 2005 (nCa) --- A job fair started Thursday in Ashgabat that showcases 1100 new vacancies for the skilled and unskilled workers of Turkmenistan.

Job fairs are held regularly in Turkmenistan to bring together the employers and job-seekers.

This year’s job fair features about 90 organizations in the public and private sector that have shown interest in hiring.

Major employers are civil engineering and municipal services firms, transportation enterprises, and construction companies. Most of jobs on offer are in the construction sector.

Turkish companies Gap Inshaat, Hayyat and Polimeks are the leaders in this job fair with 129, 55 and 120 available vacancies respectively.

Public sector has also come up with a large number of vacancies. Major slot is available for heavy vehicle drivers where 150 vacancies are available for trolley bus and motor transport drivers.

There is special emphasis for job opportunities for boys and girls of 16-17 years as they must gain two years work experience before entering the institutions of higher learning.

The next job fair would be held in autumn.

Hiring, however, is not limited to the job fairs. District and provincial centres provide year-round service to match the job-seekers with the prospective employers.

Posted by countryturkmenistan at 1:37 PM

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