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Wednesday, 15 June 2005
Legislative Sphere - an Important Factor of the Economic Development
Topic: Economy & business
As it has been already informed, the International Business Arbitration organised on the initiative of the German Technical Co-Operation Society with the assistance and participation of the government of Turkmenistan, the Embassy of the Federative Republic of Germany and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to Turkmenistan has been held in the Turkmen capital. The members of the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan, leading lawyers of the country, representatives of the legislative and juridical bodies and economic and trade departments took part in the work of the forum at which the urgent issues of the international co-operation in that significant legislative sphere were discussed. The organisers and participants of the conference shared their impressions of the conference.

Dr. Rolf Knieper, Professor of Bremen University, representative of the German Technical Co- Operation Society:

“First of all I would like to say that an interesting and constructive exchange of views between our and Turkmen experts took place within the framework of the International Business Arbitration Conference. I saw that our Turkmen partners are full of desire to raise the national legislation to the international level and it corresponds to the wish of the head of the Turkmen state Saparmurat Niyazov who did us the honour receiving us at his Palace. We, international consultants, will help the Turkmen specialists to prepare for the ratification of the New York Convention on recognition the arbitration decisions and to draw up a state law on the international arbitration. I should also state a high organisational level of the present forum. In my opinion, Turkmenistan has a great infrastructure and there are all necessary conditions for holding international conferences in Ashgabat. Political stability in the state and all other factors prove that Ashgabat could be a regional centre for settlement of the investment disputes in case of further development of the legislative basis of the country. Kuala-Lumpur is one of the largest centres of the international arbitration in Asia. The potential of Ashgabat is not less.”

Dr. Robert Briener, President of the International Court of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce (Paris):

“For some years I have been assisting Professor Knieper in organisation of his work, modelling the arbitration laws and systems of the arbitration legal proceedings in different countries. By his request I agreed to take part in this representative forum in Turkmenistan to listen to the opinions of the Turkmen politicians and competent officials. It was a great honour for me to be in the capital of independent and neutral Turkmenistan and to represent the Paris International Chamber of Commerce at this significant forum. At present the problem of the international arbitration policy and co-operation in the sphere of the business arbitration is urgent for Turkmenistan as efficient economic activities are being carried out in Turkmenistan possessing colossal natural resources. International arbitration is a reliable system of solving the disputes in the trade and economic relations between different states and the most important factor of harmonisation of legislation of different countries. In this context, the theme of Turkmenistan’s integration with the international arbitration system as soon as possible is of great significance for gaining ‘a legislative confidence’ by it in the sphere of international business and proper regulation of the international commercial disputes.”

Ian Paulson, President of the London Court of International Arbitration:

“The international conference held in the Turkmen capital proves that Turkmenistan is ready to improve its legislation system and to co-operate within the framework of the international lawmaking. Turkmenistan attracts foreign investors by many reasons and, first of all, because the political order reigns in the country and its legislation system is developed; it is very important for economic co-operation. As I could see, my Turkmen colleagues had sufficient experience and were highly professional. It was pleasant for me to listen to them and to discuss the themes common to us. I would like to say one more thing: I was greatly touched by the cordial welcome in Ashgabat. I will remember the remarkable people who met us everywhere with their smiles and cordial welcome.”

06 June 2005

Source: Turkmendowlethabarlary News Agency

Posted by countryturkmenistan at 10:05 AM
Updated: Wednesday, 15 June 2005 12:23 PM
Sunday, 12 June 2005
Accompanied by Eternity
Topic: Turkmen Culture

Nury Khalmamedov, a noble Turkmen composer, would turn 64 on February 24. President of Turkmenistan Saparmurat Niyazov described his musical legacy as follows: “Nury Khalmamedov’s music is a priceless pearl in the treasury of Turkmen art. He is a national asset.

It has been over 20 yeas since Nury Khalmamedov passed away. But, as time goes by, we are getting more and more attached to his music. During the years of Turkmenistan’s independence a younger generation has taken a greater interest in composer’s works. Today, again and again, we listen to beautiful melodies and think over the phenomena of the composer’s creative personality, open up many new things that were unknown, unnoticed and underestimated before.

It is interesting that already in the first year of independent existence of Turkmenistan the President of Turkmenistan conferred a title of “National artist of Turkmenistan” (post mortem) on Nury Khalmamedov by a Decree of December 11, 1991.

At one of his meetings with country’s people of art Saparmurat Turkmenbashi shared his precious memoir of Nury Khalmamedov: “Once I visited his modest one-room flat. He played Kechpelek for me and other melodies that time. I was charmed. It was clear that this man needs neither titles nor money. Only music mattered to him. His thoughts and feelings were in it. And he became an internationally recognized composer that was no less genius than any other composer of world significance.”

43 years that Nury Khalmamediv lived in were a very short life, full of unstoppable work of his creative mind and continuous ascent to spiritual peaks. It was a life of an artist that gave birth to the music of different genre, unique by its beauty and deepness, sincerity and truthfulness. Nury Khalmamedov’s music is addressed to all and every one in particular. It makes one think and be compassionate, throb and admire.

Let us just think over some facts of the composer’s working life: he wrote his first romance aged 19, choosing for it one of the most tragic poems of Makhtumkuli called “Outlaw”; when he was 22 he wrote his famous composition “Sounds of Dutar”; in 23 – no less popular composition, a symphony, “Turkmenistan”. Everything is striking in these compositions – the highest art level, artistic maturity, amazing nature of musical language, every tone of which is filled with lively breath, intonation and rhythms of native music. A few young authors would dare take so boldly on putting the Makhtumkuli’s poetry in music. Throbbing at the great name of the famous classic, Nury saw in his every word the greatness of the poet’s ideas, felt the highest beauty and perfection of his phraseology. Otherwise he would never create such spiritual melodies, pierced by truly national colors. Mollanepes, Kemine and other XIX-XX centuries poet’s poems, among which Kurbannazar Esisov’s name, so close to the composer by his spirit and world outlook, was frequently mentioned, also served as a basis for Nury Khalmamedov’s vocal music. Nury used to sense relative to his soul feelings and thoughts in many other archetypes of the world poetry. This was the way vocal cycles on Esenin’s “Persian tunes” and Heine’s “People’s hearts” were borne. Thanks to Nury these poets’ names that lived in different periods of history and far from each other geographically got recognition in Turkmenistan, their poetry’s lines were filled with new significance.

During his years in the Moscow academy of music he composed “Sounds of Dutar” – a unique piece of music by authenticity of the musical language and closeness to the traditions of folk music. By dedicating it to Mylly Tachmuradov, the composer thus expressed his veneration for the great playing skills of the folk musicians (bakhshi) and a musical instrument (Dutar) itself. The music lines of this perfect composition confirm a truly national character of the musical thinking of the young author. And further on, there were precious pieces of Dutar music in every work of Nury, with each one distinguishing from another, not repeating themselves and, every time, in accordance with the content and genre of musical composition.

Fundamental knowledge of the world classical music, personal musical interests (Betkhoven, Schubert, Skryabin and other composers) were not only of use in the formation of the original music style but also helped in the search of the individual pattern of works. For Nury a symphony orchestra was not simply a consonance of various instruments. In his music it sounded, “spoke” in native language of the composer, it became an obedient transformer of the musical ideas, forming a solid philosophical system based on the infinity of the national art values. Symphony “Turkmenistan” is an inspired, vivid and emotional composition that composer’s generous talent filled with beautiful melodies, national rhythmic and folk instrumental plays. It is hard to imagine a life without this music. It beams extraordinary clear light. It is like mountainous air, it’s the people’s soul.

In “Turkmenistan” the composer sang of his Motherland, he dreamt it was very beautiful and flourishing region, in which a man and nature lived in harmony. Laconic and at the same time precise in meaning names of the Symphony’s parts (“Awakening”, “In the gardens of Turkmenistan”, “A sunny holiday”) are perceived as divine today.

Nury Khalmamedov, as an artist and men, took people’s pain to the heart, which was reflected in many of his compositions. The bottom line of such compositions as string quartet “In memory of women and children killed in the Nazi torture chambers”, vocal symphonic poem on Ezizov’s poem “In memory of heroes killed in World War II”, vocal cycle on Japanese poets’ lines of the 20th century “Unfinished songs for children of Hiroshima and Nagasaki”, in spite of their antiwar nature, was the historical memory. There is no musical reproduction of the battles and struggle but only compassion in them. The more there is lightness as in the Japanese cycle, pierced by sun, warmth and placidity, the more tragic it is.

Nury Khalmamedov’s legacy is the remarkably rich spiritual world heading for Eternity. It is the world that embraced many things – veneration for folk songs, folk musicians, greatness and wisdom of classics. Folk art was a native environment, a spiritual source for the composer.

The works of Nury Khalmamedov is a powerful spiritual connection between the past, present and future of the Turkmen people.

Professor of the Turkmen National Academy of Music

“Neytralniy Turkmenistan” newspaper, 24.02.04

Posted by countryturkmenistan at 9:52 AM
Friday, 10 June 2005
Kone Urgench Historical Site
Topic: Travel to Turkmenistan
At the far end of Turkmenistan, 150 km to the northwest of Dashoguz, lies Koneurgench City (population 31.400). The outskirts of the city adjoin the territory of the State Historical -Cultural Museum - Reserve, covering nearly 640 hectares, and was founded in 1985. Here one can find several magnificent architectural memorials of the 13th - 14th c. These include one of the tallest minaret in Middle Asia, and various numbers of common buildings in medieval epoch: mausoleums, medressas and fortresses.

There are all remnants of the ancient capital that gained prosperity thousands of year ago. It was the ancient capital of Khorezm, a historical region located near the mouth of Amu-Darya River, the first mentioned in the famous Behistun legend of Tsar Dary I (the 6th-5th c AD) and also in the "Avesta" - Zoroastrians' sacred book.

No one knows when Koneurgench was founded. Traces of an ancient settlement were discovered recently on the territory of present Koneurgench. During the excavation of a barrow, called Kyrkmolla, contours of a powerful antique fortress were found, based on earlier cultural ground with ceramics of 6th - 7th c AD.

In 712, Khorezm was overthrown by the Arabs, and Koneurgench took its Arabic name Dgurdganiya (or Gurgandj). The city developed, thanks to its advance position on the trade routes from the south to the north and from the west to the Volga River, and to the east in Mongolia and China.

In 995, Gurgandj become Khorezmshakh's state capital and the second city after remarkable Bukhara - capital of Samanids, in Middle Asia. It is amazing that wonderful architectural monuments from that era have survived. The earliest among these are mausoleums of Khorezmshakhs II - Arslan and Tekesh, built in the 12th c. The city was surrounded by walls - fragments of which form a bank. There are another monuments such as the most beautiful palace in Gurganj Turabek - Khanum (dated originally in the 12th century and was considered to be a mausoleum of the Sufi Dynasty); Kutlug - Timur minaret; Mamun II minaret; Sultan Ali mausoleum; Ibn - Khadgib mausoleum (14th century); Ali Ar - Ramitany mausoleum (Ezizdgan); Seyid Akhmed mausoleum; portal of an unknown monumental construction ("Peshtak" of Caravansaray - 14th century); Nadgmetdin al - Kubr khanaka; burial building - Mukhamad Karim - Ishan mausoleum (1886 - 89); medressa "Dash - masque" (1907-1908).On the Koneurgench territory there are preserved numerous archaeological and architectural monuments, presenting considerable scientific and cultural value. Kone Urgench has been known by various names, found in Avesta-Urva (VI c. BC); Hangrid-Hanjird (VII-VIII c.c. AD); Gurgench-Djurdjaniya (XI-XII c.c. AD). After the Mongol invasion, the town was called Urgench; from l646 AD, it was known as Kone-Urgench.

Ancient Kone-Urgench was considered one of the major cities of the East. The scientists who studied the topography of Gurgench/Urgench considered that the territory was as large as 1000 hectares in the X-XIV c.c. AD. This site is presently protected by the Government. It occupies 640 hectares. Legend tells that the town Kine-Urgench was destroyed and re-built seven times. Beginning 1681 AD, Kone Urgench came under the control of Arab rules. Between 1017- 1034 AD , Kone Urgench was governed by Ghaznavids. Abu-shtegin, a turkish slave, founded a new state which lasted until 1221 AD. In 1221 Urgench was destroyed by the Mongols. In 1321, the town was annexed to the Golden Horde. In the middle of the 14 c. Hussein Sufi, a Qongart Turk, founded the Sufi Dynasty with the support of the Khan of the Golden Horde. In 1388 the town was destroyed by Temur Link, and lost a status of a city. In 1646, when the Amu-Darya river changed its course, life stopped here. After the construction of the canal Khanyap by the Khans of Khiva, the town was re-born.

Kyrk Molla

The fortress Kyrk Molla is located in the north-eastern outskirts of Gur-Gench, and dates back to the X-XIV c.c.. It is directly to the north east of the monument of KHOREZM-shah Tekesh. The height of the fortress is 12 m.

Akk Gala

This fortress is located southwest of the ruins of Medieval Urgench. Their high walls, built with sun dried bricks, have survived to our days. Historical references indicate that the famous "Koshk-l-Ahchas", dating back to the X-XII c.c., was located here. The height of the walls of the fortress ranges from 6 to 8 metres.


Dashgala begins from the canal "Gushbegiyap" which runs to the south of the mausoleum ll'Arslan. It borders Ak Gala on the east and Khorezm Bagh on the west. Dashgala is surrounded by a moat. Inside the Dashgala, there are such monuments as Karavansaray in the south and the Minaret of Mamum in the north.

Mausoleum of Soltan Tekesh

The monument known as Soltan Tekesh is located to the southeast of Kyrk Molla. Soltan Tekesh ruled between XII-XIII c.c., Although in the scientific literature this structure is known as the Mausoleum of Tekesh, in popular parlance called Gokgummez (Blue cupola) or the Mausoleum of Shyh Sherip Baba. The foundation of the monument is quadrangular in shape, and the 24-sided cupola is 18 meters high with a square base measuring 11.45X11.45 m.

II Arslan

II Arslan is a magnificent building, located between Dashgala and the Mausoleum of Tekesh. This magnificent structure is known among the people as Mausoleum of Kho-rezmshah II Arslan. The monument is also named after the famous Islamic scientist and philosopher Fahreddin Razi. II Arslan ruled from 1156 to 1172. According to the latest scientific theories, this building was used for storing water.

Monument of Torebeg Hanum

This monument, named after Torebeghanum, is located in the northern part of the ancient Gurgench. This monument con-sidered to be the most beautiful in Central Asia. Torebeg-haanym dates back to the end of the XIIc. - begining of the XIII c. Some historians doesn't consider it to be a mausoleum, but rather the palace of the Anushtegyns Dynasty. This structure, with a total area of 100 sq. m and high portal /25 m., is divided into three parts. It consists of a large central hall, a watchtower on the left and a staircase of 45 steps on the right.

Minaret of Gutlugh Temur/XI-XII c.c.

The minaret of Gutlugh Temur is located in the north west side of Khorezmshakh Tekesh. It is 64m high and considered to be the highest in Central Asia. The diameter of foundation is about 12 m., the diameter of the top is about 2 m. At a height of 7 m there is an entrance into the minaret .

Caravansaray/X-XII c.c.

The monument, known as Caravansaray, is located in the south of ancient Gurgench. According to historians , ancient Gurgench had had three gates: Akabilan, Nowur and AI-Kauz. Caravansaray is rectangular in shape and measures 34 m from north to east.

Nedjmeddin Kubra

The monument of Nedjimeddin Kubra is located in the western part of Kone Urgench. The monument is named after Ahmed ibn Omar Abuidjenap Nedjimeddin al Kubra al Khorezmi. He was born in Urgench in 1145-46, and became the founder of the Kubravid's school of Sophism. Nedjmeddin Kubra was famous not only as philosopher, but also as a painter, physician, chess master and talented general. Seven books and 24 rubais written by Kubra survived to this day. This monument is a perfect architectural construction. Its portal dates back to the XII-XIII c.c.. The monument was rebuilt during the era of prosperity of Khorezm, and again after the Mongol invasion.


The mausoleum of Piryarweli is located to the west of Nedjmeddin Kubra.In this place a lot of famous people were buried,such as Shyh Setdar, Sheker Gendji, Daniyar Weli. Piryarweli was a contemporary of Nedjmeddin Kubra. Initially the monument was costructed in the XII-XIV c.c.. The height of its portal is 6.5 m and length is 7.5 m.

Ibn Hadjib

The monument of Ibn Hadjib, located in the western sector of ancient Gurgench, was built in honor of Ibn Hadjib, a talented descile of Nedjmeddin Kabra. This monument is actually a complex, different parts of which were constructed in different periods of time/ 14,18,19 c.c. This includes a burial chamber and premises for the visitors.

Mausoleum of Seyit Ahmet/XIV c.

The grave of Seyit Ahmet is located on the right side of the road to Minara. Seyit Ahmet was a famous contemporary of Nedjmeddin Kubra.

Soltan Ali

The mausoleum of Soltan Ali is located on the opposite side from the mausoleum of Nedjmeddin Kubra.This monument is linked to the name of Soltan Ali, who ruled Urgench in the 16 c. The monument is hexagonal in shape. The diameter of the cupola is 9.5 m.

Located along the famous Silk Road, Kone Urgench became an important link for the caravans, passing from the East, West and North , from the Volga river, Mongolia and China. This crossroad was a great contribution to the development of science and culture in Central Asia.

Source: StanTours

Posted by countryturkmenistan at 4:33 PM
Updated: Wednesday, 27 July 2005 5:15 PM
Wednesday, 8 June 2005
Turkmen Emboridery
Topic: Turkmen Traditions
Akgaima, kojime and ilme (or ildirme - chain stitching) are basic types of Turkmen embroidery stitches. Every stitch is widespread in certain groups of Turkmen. Akkaima is never met singly; sometimes it is combined with embroidery, which is made according to the technique of the second type - kodjp-me (or just keshde - embroidery), which is quite common on its own. Both akkaima and kojime are widespread amongst Turkmen - Tekins, Goklens, Sariks and other small groups living amongst them. Akkaima is mainly applied to men's tyubeteykas; this very stitch is also used for the neck of dresses and shirts, and the lower edges of women's trousers.

Embroidery is made on the front and very dense stitched; pointed ornament in a form of triangles and broken lines is made. Kojime stitch is very similar to a stitch known to Russian people as "kozlik with mount", but with loop framing. Southern Turkmen use it for embroidery on girl's tyubeteykas and dressing gowns. Women's mantle dressing gowns, i.e., chirpi, covered by patterns (almost out of use now), are especially abundantly embroidered by this stitch.

In addition to the southern Turkmen, Tashaus Turkmen Yomuts, Emreli and also contemporary choudors also use kojime stitch (they knew how to chain stitch in the past).

Chain stitch is usual for western Turkmen Yomuts and small size groups of Turkmen - hodja, idgir, shih, living to the north of Krasnovodsk. Chain stitch was more used in the past; it was typical for Turkmen who are known under the name of Turkmen esen-hani (hasan eli). There are ancient dressing gowns and women's caps of choudors in the Tashauz region, all covered by patters of chain stitch on red or blue thin cloth brought from Russia. Ancient items of shihs, igdirs, now living on the Caspian seaside, are very close in character and technique of embroidery (on thin cloth and the type of patterns) to those of choudors.

Chain stitch is made by needlework amongst Turkmen, although other people of the Central Asia embroider chain stitch by hook. For all patterns made by chain stitch, a double line is typical.

Turkmen use two types of stitch as subsidiary stitches, usually hiding inner joining seams. First, a covering stitch of satin stitch type with straight or slanting stitches, called tugtima (Tekins) or gurtikin (Yomuts), i.e., fixed and loop, in which loops are in the middle of the pattern, forming a herring bone. Featherstitch and others are also met, but they do not determine the character of Turkmen embroidery, which is various in technique and ornament.

From our point of view, the technique of Turkmen embroidery is evidence of various ethnic components in the composition of the Turkmen nation. When thoroughly studied, it will give a lot of material for the study of Turkmen ethnogeny. A very interesting fact has to be noted here: the technique of kojime, widespread amongst Turkmen, is not met amongst other people of Central Asia. The only exception is a part of the southern Kyrgyz, inhabitants of Osh region, who widely use this technique of embroidery.

Embroidery patterns, as well as those of carpets, are strictly geometrical. However, for ancient embroidered dressing gowns and Tekin, Goklen, and Yomut girls' caps, as well as for women's head mantles of Tekin chirpi, the kurte geometrical floral ornament, close to the ornament of jewellery, is typical.

Girl's and men's tyubeteykas, the neck and sleeves of women's dresses (and in the distant past men's as well), the lower part of trousers (which can be seen from underneath of dress), different kinds of small bags used for keeping domestic things, watch cases and men's ties are conventionally embroidered by Turkmen women. Woollen embroidery on woven carpets or walking carpets is met less often.

Today, embroidery is being renewed

Source: Traditional culture and folklore of Central Asia

Posted by countryturkmenistan at 1:56 PM
Updated: Thursday, 23 June 2005 12:18 PM
Monday, 6 June 2005
The Turkmen
Topic: Turkmen History
The Turkmen made the transition to an agricultural lifestyle fairly recently and their cultural characteristics are unique in many ways.

The origins of Turkmen is fairly well understood. The term Turkmen is not so clear. The first part of the word is clear, the name Turkic people gave themselves; but the second half is not so clear. Linguistically it is clear: Turk-men means "I am a Turk". Another explanation made in the 17th c by Abul-gazi was that it comes from the Persian "turk-manend" - like Turk, a type of Turk. There is also the idea that it basically has two etymologies - turk-koman (kumany-kipchaki or polovets (tribe)).

For the first time, the name "turkmen" appeared at the end of the 10th century in Arabic literature: it was a name of a part of the Turkic tribes (oguz, karluk, etc.) which lived on the border of the agricultural area of Central Asia, or in its heart among the Iranian-speaking agricultural population. According to records of Marvazi (the 12th century writer), 'Turkmen' was given to the part of oguz population which accepted Islam. One can suppose that it was a name of Turkic-language tribes from the Aral-Caspian steppe and partially from Semirechye, in contrast to Turkic-language tribes of Central Asia.

Since the 11-12th centuries the term 'turkmen' was more widespread, and gradually became the name of a nationality formed in the western part of Central Asia. Besides that, many cattle-breeding tribes of oguz origin were called Turkmen. Since the 11th century they have settled in Asia Minor, Azerbaijan and northern Iraq, and later they became a part of Azerbaijanian and Turkish nations.

Over the centuries the Turkmen have been keeping the clan-tribe social organization. The location of the tribes has repeatedly changed because of various political and economical circumstances. In the 19th century (starting from its middle till the last decades) the major Turkmen tribes were located on the territory of current Turkmenistan in the following way: Yomuts occupied more of less a solid territory eastwards of the Caspian Sea.

The border of this territory is a line stretching from the southwest towards the northeast: Atrek river - Kyzyl-Arvat town - Kunya-Urgench town. Turkmen occupied the basins of Murgab and Tedjen rivers, and the foothill oases along northern slopes of Kopet-Dag towards Kyzyl-Arvata in the west; to the north of their pasturable territories were Zaunguzsk Karakums. Ersari were located along the left and partially on the right banks of the Amudarya, between Kelif and Chardjou cities; the Solars occupied the middle of Chardjou oblast and the Serah district; the Saryks were placed in the basin of the Murgab (Yolotan and Tahta-Bazar rayons); as for goklens, they occupied territories mainly along the rivers Sumbar and Cahdyr (Kara-Kalin district); the Choudors placed themselves within Horezm oasis; the Ali-ilis (Alilis) - in the foothills of eastern Kopet-Dag; the Karadashlis and Yemrelis - in the western part of Khorezm oasis, and small groups of them occupied the south of Turkmenistan, and so on. The Yomuts, Goklens, Yemrals, Alilis, Saryks, Salyrs settled in Iran; the Ersars, Alilis and Saryks in Afghanistan.

The Turkmen tribes lived a secluded life and had poor economic connections with the outside world and their neighbors who were separated by territories difficult to trespass. Therefore, the Turkmen lived in isolation.

This isolation was a reason for the difference between the biggest Turkmen tribes in their histories and ways of life.

Cattle breeding used to be the main occupation of the major northern tribes. Turkmen were breeding fat-tail sheep, camels and horses. Herding by the yomuds still survived till recently on the steppes. Each tribe had chomurs or charvadars. This type of management died out slowly: herding was less viable and settled agricultural work became the norm. Sometimes, however, settled farmers turned to herding.

At the same time, all Turkmen tribes were dealing with agriculture. Their farming was similar to the traditions elsewhere in Central Asia. They used irrigation via canals. The Murgab river does not flow into a lake; it is diverted into canals. The same is the case for the Tedjen. Turkmen who lived in the neighborhood of Sarykamysh Lake, namely the adakly-hyzyr tribe, created a complicated system of artificial irrigation, which helped to develop about 50 hectare of land. Turkmen primitive agriculture was also found in the western part of Khorezm oasis. Southern Turkmen tribes had an ancient and advanced agricultural economy (yazrs - from the 12th c), though cattle raising was also important. It was of the least importance for the Mangyshlak peninsula and Big Balhans, but even there small springs were used for field irrigation.

In the 16th c, a majority of Turkmen tribes had a typical combination of irrigated agriculture with nomadic or distant-pasture cattle-raising. Respectively, they had a partly nomadic way of life, where a part of one and the same ethnic group (charva) were moving with herds, and the other part (chomrs) were settled and busy with agriculture. In "The Turks' genealogical tree" Abul'-Gazi wrote about the half-nomadic way of life of Turkmen, saying that a nomadic type of life was specific to those parts who owned cattle, i.e., who were richer.

The process of forming the Turkmen nation was stretched out and continued to our times. Now they are one, but till the 1920s, they were composed of various tribes. This tribal custom was more pronounced than with other peoples of Central Asia.


Posted by countryturkmenistan at 2:17 PM
Updated: Monday, 6 June 2005 2:20 PM

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