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TURKMENISTAN: All Interesting Facts and Information
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Sunday, 8 January 2006
The History Captured in Stone
Topic: Environment & ecology
The palaeontological finds, footsteps of dinosaurs (aged 140 million years) and petrified footsteps of camels and other animals (aged 2.5 million years), teeth and bones of elephants, giraffes, rhinoceroses and other animals as well as the shell of ostrich’s eggs found between Hazar (Cheleken) and Koytendag and dating 60-80 million years ago attest that the territory of Turkmenistan mainly occupied by the desert was a blooming oasis in the ancient times.

One of the most ancient sites in the territory of Asia is located in the upper reaches of the Amu Darya River in the Kuldere Ravine the age of which is 800,000 years. The ancient tools aged 1 mln –800,000 years were discovered in the Western Kopetdag in the Sumbar and the Chandyr Valley.

Southern Turkmenistan was included into the most ancient area of people’s settling in Asia. This territory is also a habitat of the Bactrian camel. The animal’s bones were uncovered in the Anau Northern mound in the cultural strata (V millennium B.C.) and the terracotta figurines of camel in the archaeological complexes dating back to the 3rd – 2nd millennia B.C. Thus, Turkmenistan was one of the ancient centres of domestication of this animal that can be proved by the archaeological finds of the wild camel’s footsteps discovered in the geological strata in the Western Kopetdag aged 2.5 million years.

The science hasn’t found the actual proofs of the time when the people domesticated the camel. The ancient farmers of Southern Turkmenistan used camels and horses as draft animals even in the 4th – 3rd millennia B.C. that can proved by the archaeological materials. The finds of the remains of camels in the Tummekkichijik and the Dashlyburun burial grounds (Northern Turkmenistan) dating back to IV millennium B.C. attest that the people used camels as draft animals throughout the area.

Camels posses such valuable qualities as high carrying capacity and endurance, the animal adapts itself to the severe desert conditions. Its wool is used for making national cloth and its meat is a foodstuff. Selecting the new varieties depends on the animal’s role in the human economic activities. But the Bactrian camel is incomparable with no other animal in its endurance and speed as well as beauty.

The footsteps of vertebrate animals were discovered in some areas within the Western Kopetdag Mountains of the Neogene Age (about 2.5 million years ago). A sandstone lump weighing about 70-100 tons that was discovered in the Gyavurli settlement is one of the most important ancient natural monuments imprinting the camels’ footsteps.

These footsteps have no analogues in the world and are the property of the world historical science. The activities on research in and protection of the unique natural monuments and organisation of the tours to the area are stipulated by the National Environmental Action Plan of Turkmenistan (NEAP). 245 monuments under protection are inscribed in the list of the natural monuments in Turkmenistan.

Archaeologist, Doctor of History

Posted by countryturkmenistan at 12:21 PM
Updated: Sunday, 8 January 2006 12:23 PM
Successors of the Ancient Ages
Topic: Environment & ecology
Much interesting is known about the unusual natural phenomena, volcanoes, famous for their spectacular and amazing power. Millions of years ago the fire-spitting mountains located in the Badkhyz erupted. There are miniature volcanoes in Turkmenistan that erupt hot water containing various chemical elements including iodine and bromine.

The west of Turkmenistan is well-known as the land of mud volcanoes, they number dozens there. They are quite ancient formations aged many thousands and even millions of years. The mud volcanoes like an open letter for geologists in which they can read the ancient history of the Turkmen land. According to the research the hydrocarbon deposits accompany volcanoes.

The Akpatlavuk Volcano is one of the most interesting ones in western Turkmenistan. Its peak is crowned with a round crater looking like a miniature lake filled with mud. Usually the volcano welcomes the guests rather friendly but during the stormy eruption the mud column can be up to 10 metres high.

Even only the Akpatlavuk Volcano deserves the title of one of the most interesting sights of the region. But there are many other volcanoes; some of them are active ones, others are extinct, but each has its own history. They are the Geokpatlavuk, Boiling Hillock, Chekishlar and many others and each of them is wonderful and interesting in its own way.

Photo by Yu. SHKURIN

Posted by countryturkmenistan at 12:18 PM
Friday, 15 July 2005
Irish Oil Firm Hailed for Turkmen Green Efforts
Topic: Environment & ecology
Excerpt from report by Turkmen newspaper Neytralnyy Turkmenistan on 8 July

Turkmen President Saparmyrat Turkmenbasy [Nyyazov's] "Open Doors" policy has developed a favourable climate in the country for attracting foreign investment by providing all necessary guarantees for investors involved in the country's fuel sector and also by promoting common solutions to the problems of the sector.

Most foreign firms have joined in the exploration of new oil and gas deposits and restoration of obsolete wells and in the development of new areas to increase extraction of raw hydrocarbon materials.

At the same time, with the intensification of oil transportation via the Caspian Sea, the potential risk of environmental pollution is growing at sea and in the areas around.

Foreign companies are taking an active part in a number of ecological projects of the Turkmen oil and gas sector. For example, take the activities of Ireland's Emerol Ltd company, which has been operating in Turkmenistan since 1992. The company is taking part in introducing new technologies in the oil refining sector and in its modernization and reconstruction by making direct investment and attracting funds.

A rise in the extraction of hydrocarbon resources requires an increase in processing capacities. To resolve the problems of both the environment and production, both at a time, as stipulated in Turkmenistan's national programme of economic, political and cultural development up to 2020, Emerol Ltd, together with the country's Nature Protection Ministry and the Turkmennebitgaz [Turkmen oil and gas] trading corporation and the management of the Turkmenbasy set of refineries, has drawn up a plan for environmental protection aimed at restoring the environment around the Turkmenbasy refinery and Caspian Sea areas.

On the whole, between 1995 and 2003, Emerol Ltd carried out in Turkmenistan projects worth over 80m dollars. Another set of projects, worth a total of over 150m dollars, is being implemented. The company is carrying out these projects in strict compliance with universal environmental safety rules, using advanced technologies and modern equipment to tackle the problems of the fuel sector. Before starting work, the projects had been approved by resolutions of President Saparmyrat Turkmenbasy.

All of these projects are being carried out with the use of environment-friendly technologies to avoid negative consequences of human activity.

By implementing these projects, Emerol also makes a huge contribution into creating a reliable environment-protecting network in the country's oil processing sector, thus ensuring the conservation of the natural resources of independent Turkmenistan for the present and coming generations.

Source: BBC Monitoring Central Asia

Posted by countryturkmenistan at 5:39 PM

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